Laser Optics Optical Components Laser Crystal

Laser Crystals

Laser crystals are solid-state materials that are used as the active medium in laser systems. They are typically made of a host material doped with small amounts of a specific rare earth, transition metal or other element that can amplify light. The doping elements used in laser crystals are chosen based on their ability to absorb and emit light at specific wavelengths, making them ideal for laser applications.

Part NumberLC-YVO4Part NumberLC-GdVO4Part NumberLC-YAGPart NumberLC-Ti-Sapphire
Crystal StructureZircon TetragonalCrystal StructureTetragonalCrystal StructureCubicChemical FormulaTi3+:Al2O3
Cell Parametera=b=7.1193A°, c=6.2892A°Space GroupI41/amdLattice Constant12.01AoCrystal StructureHexagonal
Density4.22g/cm3Lattice Parametera = 0.721nm, b = 0.635nmMelting Point1970oCLattice Constants
a = 4.758A°, c = 12.991A°
Atomic Density1.26 x 1020 atoms/cm3Lasing Transition4F3/2 → 4I11/2Density4.5g/cm3Density3.98g/cm3
Mohs Hardness4-5 (Glass-like)Lasing Wavelength1062.9nmReflectivity1.82Melting Point2040°C
Thermal Expansion Coefficient (300K)αa = 4.43 x 10-6/K
αc = 11.37 x 10-6/K
Emission Cross Section (at 1064nm)7.6 x 10-19cm2Thermal Expansion Coefficient7.8 x 10-6 /K <111>, 0-250°CMohs Hardness9
Thermal Conductivity Coefficient (300K)//C: 0.0523W/cm/K
⟘C: 0.0510W/cm/K
Absorption Cross Section (at 808nm)4.9 x 10-19cm2Thermal Conductivity (W/m/K)14, 20°C
10.5, 100°C
Thermal Conductivity52W/m/k
Lasing Wavelength1064nm, 1342nmAbsorption Coefficient (at 808nm)74cm-1Mohs Hardness8.5Specific Heat0.42J/g/K
Thermal Optical Coefficient (300K)dno/dT = 8.5 x 10-6/K
dne/dT = 2.9 x 10-6/K
Index of Refractivity (at 1064nm)no = 1.972, ne = 2.192Stimulated Emission Cross Section2.8 x 10-19cm-2Laser Action
4-Level Vibronic
Stimulated Emission Cross-section25 x 10-19cm2 @ 1064nmThermal Conductivity (<110>)11.7W/m/KRelaxation Time of Terminal Lasing Level30nsFluorescence Lifetime3.2μs (T=300K)
Fluorescent Lifetime90μs (1% Nd doped)Density5.47g/cm3Radiative Lifetime550μsTuning Range660-1050nm
Absorption Coefficient31.4cm-1 @ 810nmNd Dopant Level (atomic)0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.5%, 0.7%, 1.0%…Spontaneous Fluorescence230μsAbsorption Range400-600nm
Intrinsic Loss0.02cm-1 @ 1064nm
 
Linewidth0.6nmEmission Peak795nm
Gain Bandwidth0.96nm @ 1064nmLoss Coefficient0.003cm-1 @ 1064nmAbsorption Peak488nm
Polarized Baser Emissionπ polarization; parallel to optical axis (c-axis)
 
Refractive Index1.76 @ 800nm
Diode Pumped Optical To Optical Efficiency>60%Peak Cross-Section
3~4 x 10-19cm2
Sellmeier Equations (λ in μm)no2 = 3.77834 + 0.069736/(λ2- 0.04724) – 0.010813λ2
ne2 = 4.59905 + 0.110534/(λ2- 0.04813) – 0.012676λ2
Thermal Expansion8.40 x 10-6/°C

Crystal

Nd:GdVO4

Nd:YVO4

Crystal Structure, Space Group

Tetragonal, I41/amd

Tetragonal, I41/amd

Lattice Constants (nm)

a:

0.721

a:

0.721

b:

0.635

b:

0.629

Melting Temperature (°C)

1780

1825

Thermal Expansion @ 25°C, x 10-6/°C

A

1.5

a

4.43

B

7.3

b

11.4

Specific Heat @ 25°C, cal/mol·K

32.6

24.6

dn/dT, x 10-6/°C

4.7

2.7

Crystal

Nd:YVO4

Nd:GdVO4

Nd:YAG

Laser Wavelengths

1064.3nm, 1342.0nm

1062.9nm, 1340nm

1064.2nm, 1338.2nm

Emission Bandwidth (linewidth at 1064nm)

0.8nm

No data

0.45nm

Effective Laser Cross Section (emission cross section at 1064nm)

15.6 x 10-19cm2

7.6 x 10-19cm2

6.5 x 10-19cm2

Polarization

Parallel to c-axis

Parallel to c-axis

Unpolarised

Radioactive Lifetime (microseconds) at 1% Nd Doping

~100μs

~95μs

230μs

Pump Wavelength

808.5nm

808.4nm

807.5nm

Peak Pump Absorption at 1% Doping

~41cm-1

~57cm-1

 

Thermal Conductivity, W/m/K

5.1

11.7

14

Doping Concentration Range

0.1-3.0%

0.1-3.0%

0.1-2.0%

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